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Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is both a hormone and an excitatory neurotransmitter that plays critical roles in nervous system function. When the brain perceives a stressful event, norepinephrine is released. There are two modes of norepinephrine release: burst and tonic firing. The fight-or-flight response is triggered through burst firing, providing a rapid assessment of danger. Excessive burst firing increases anxiety, restlessness, vigilance and hyperactivity. Tonic firing, however, has positive effects on sleep, mood disorders, stress resilience, inflammation and concentration.