2 mL of serum drawn into a royal blue-topped no additive tube. The serum must be removed from the specimen within 4 hours of collection.
The clinical significance of copper is plainly stated by Andrew Hall Cutler, Ph.D., in his book, Hair Test Interpretation. He explains that copper causes the growth of new blood vessels, aids in healing and growth, and helps the body recover from heart attacks and strokes. However, abnormal levels can cause negative effects such as blindness and kidney damage in diabetics and growth of cancer tumors.
Of the essential elements, copper is the one closest to toxic levels when present in normal physiological amounts. Any mild abnormality or impairment of liver function can lead to copper excretion building up to toxic levels because the physiologic and toxic ranges are so close together. Most copper is in the liver and the brain and these organs can become damaged and function improperly due to copper toxicity.
The behavioral effects of copper poisoning are similar to those of mercury poisoning. The derangement of mineral transport that is caused by mercury usually favors the accumulation of copper. Low copper can cause anemia, poor immune function, poor growth, reduced skin and hair pigmentation, and poor formation of the catecholamine neurotransmitters (116, 117).
All kits include:
**Blood draw fee not included.
Dr. David Scheiderer MD, MBA, DFAPA, is the Chief Medical Officer and Director of Education at Integrative Psychiatry, Inc. in Sarasota, Florida and the President of Tiberius Enterprises, Inc. in Roanoke, Virginia. An accomplished clinician, educator, and lecturer, Dr. Dave has established himself as a key opinion leader in the fields of both mainstream psychiatry and functional medicine. Dissatisfied with the patient outcomes using only conventional treatments, he began treating his patients by addressing biological imbalances with lifestyle improvements, nutrition and nutraceuticals to get better outcomes. His integrative approach provided much improved results. Dr. Dave is passionate about helping the community he serves by personalizing treatments and educating the public about mental health and healthy aging. He has formulated several of our supplements and sat on the advisory board for many others, ensuring the products we carry are based on science and experience and have the best efficacy rates and highest ingredient quality available.